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GNSS 2019发展趋势预测(一)

添加时间:2019-01-17 来源:上海北斗导航创新研究院 作者:上海北斗导航创新研究院
  《GNSS技术蓝皮书》研究发现三大技术趋势和三个要点(亮点、热点和焦点)。其中,GNSS接收机系统蜕变创新技术成为焦点,这是为什么?“上面千条线,下边一根针”,这就是说,GNSS千变万化,最终汇聚到一点,就是接收机系统技术蜕变创新这个核心焦点上,因为GNSS服务的实现最后都由接收机系统加以体现,无法逾越,不可或缺,但是随着GNSS系统变革和应用服务面向对象的更迭,其蜕变创新也是最大的。GNSS接收机系统是GNSS系统和技术与产业的对接点,也是三大技术发展趋势和三个要点的交汇点,还是当前GNSS系统与产业转折性发展的着力点。
 
  通常,大家一谈起GNSS接收机,谈的最多的就是芯片,或者芯片组。讲芯片功能多么强大,工艺多么高。这些当然很重要,但是接收机作为一个系统,不仅仅在于芯片本身,而是还与输入端的天线,和输出端的应用服务接口与配套设施密切相关,还与多种多样的定位算法和软件组密切相关,也就是说与接收机系统,尤其是结合应用服务的不断与时俱进的技术创新密切相关。
 
  当前,GNSS接收机系统创新技术成为焦点,主要体现三个方面:一是GNSS信号体制的全方位创新带来的革命性变化,GPS和GLONASS现代化,极其重要的现代化举措是信号体制的更新变革,GPSIII采用的新信号,和GLONASS采用CDMA与FDMA共用体制,北斗三号和伽利略系统采用的新信号体制,尤其是GNSS兼容互操作,利用两个共用频点,实现多星座信号双频高精度服务,将GNSS应用服务水平和经济实用性,提高到一个崭新的层级,其巨大效应还刚刚出现曙光;二是随着GNSS应用服务领域的广泛深入,与其它技术和系统的跨界融合,特别是通信导航的相互融合,GNSS接收机系统的形态在发生根本性的变化,如在移动手机中,GNSS接收机往往不是以独立的专用导航芯片方式出现,而是作为移动手机RF频率配置和基带的一部分,用软硬件结合的IP方式将导航功能加以实现,在不久将来,说不定会依托通用器件用软件接收机方式加以实现。在车联网、船联网、物联网应用中有可能会创造丰富多彩的接收机形态;三是在泛在的新时空服务中,GNSS只是坚强PNT的组成部分之一加以应用,它与声光电磁和机械惯性等时空信息提供者在一起,体现泛在、精准、安全和连接的基础性能,形成自动化和智能环境感知技术,构成智能信息时代赖于生存发展的生态系统的基础,推进无人机、无人车、无人船等无人系统的发展进步,推进智能信息产业的快速、健康、持续发展,在新技术新产业革命的凤凰涅盘中获得重生。
 
  在GNSS系统和产业的发展中,现在进入了一个转折性的发展历程,这就是由系统建设阶段,转变为产业发展阶段,这就是通常说的,从以技术引领为主的“北斗+”时期,进入以市场带动为主的“+北斗”时期,导入了一个新的产业发展时期。北斗的应用服务产业,业已到了一个从量变到质变的崭新的发展期,高精度大众化应用技术的创新,将北斗/GNSS产业提高到一个前所未有的新高度,而“+北斗”将产业深化发展,与各行各业的深度融合,创造出千姿百态、千变万化的GNSS接收机系统技术,这种蜕变创新,会持续很长很长时间,经久不衰,创造出层出不穷的新应用新服务,造福全中国全世界。
 
  近期,GPS World 对知名专家学者2019全球卫星导航行系统发展趋势预测进行了梳理汇总,亮点颇多,不容错过。全球定位系统处主任史蒂夫·惠特尼(Steve Whitney)上校指出:要通过GPS企业集成发展路线图,着力发展ERTL、ERM及ERM-M-代码三方面的能力。 ERTL主要聚焦于整合一系列顶尖资源,如新的卫星、新的地面系统和新的发射提供者,安全地将航天器送入预设轨道,并对其进行有效控制;ERM的目标为将GPS III卫星带入活跃的星座,提供类似于当今星座系统的服务功能;ERM-M-代码侧重军用,主要为战士提供更强大、更具灵活性、抗干扰/防篡改的PNT信号能力。
 
  欧洲空间局Galileo项目计划部主任Javier Benedicto指出:自2016年12月宣布初始服务以来,欧洲航天局(ESA)和欧洲全球卫星导航局(GSA)一直致力于伽利略系统能力和服务鲁棒性的建设。2019年初, Galileo的工作卫星将多达22颗。在星载软件升级并可为用户提供自动健康状态标记后,卫星椭圆轨道上增加的两颗FOC卫星会加入运行星座,届时将有24颗伽利略卫星为全球用户提供PNT服务支持。此外,欧空局已为第一批“过渡卫星”启动了竞争性采购程序,其中考虑到了广域增强及一些其他的新功能,包括改进的信号域、更快的信号采集能力、更低的接收器功耗、星载时钟技术、星间链路、电力推进、灵活的有效载荷,以及通过机载数字技术和在轨重构实现的功率分配。
 
  北斗卫星导航系统总设计师杨长风院士总结说:2018年北斗在系统建设、系统集成和国际发展等领域取得了丰硕成果。北斗二代系统性能得到了很大提升,北斗三代星座部署基本完成,并集成了前两代北斗系统的短报文通信功能,短报文信息容量可达原来的10倍。2019年至2020年间,北斗将继续努力提升服务的持续性、稳定性和准确性,并通过发射另外6颗MEO卫星、3颗IGSO卫星及2颗GEO卫星推进北斗三代卫星的部署, 实现2020年为全球用户提供导航、定位、授时、短报文通信及搜救等服务的目标。
 
  俄罗斯航天系统公司主管Yury Urlichich认为:2019年将为GLONASS用户带来许多新的机遇。通过用户层面信号的准确性和可用性方面的评估获取改善的导航服务能力是2019年的首要目标。Glonass-K2计划于2019年发射。与Glonass-M和Glonass-K卫星相比,Glonass-K2的任务要求将用户测距误差定义为0.3米。提升导航精度主要借助空间系统的发展,包括轨道星座(空间部分)和地面控制部分,由此实现GLONASS用户性能的改善。
 
  现将GNSS 2019发展趋势预测原文转发如下,以飨业内同仁及广大读者。如果您对北斗卫星导航系统及产业发展有任何意见或建议,欢迎留言或直接与我们联系。
 
  正文:
 
  Integrating the Enterprise
 
  BY Col. Steven Whitney DIRECTOR, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE
 
  Navigating across the world’s roads with GPS is easy. Navigating through the shifting construction zones, detours, and forks of the GPS Enterprise is not always so straightforward. For that reason, the GPS Directorate has placed more emphasis on illustrating, both figuratively and literally, the roadmaps leading to the integration of the GPS Enterprise. Before linking everything together, let’s start with an update on each major program effort. This way you can zoom out to see the path ahead; hopefully minimizing any “route recalculating” along the way.
 
  Program Updates
 
  The journey to build the new GPS III satellites has been full of twists and turns but we are now close to our destination – in this case the GPS orbit of 12,550 miles above the Earth. We not only have ten GPS III Space Vehicles simultaneously in production at Lockheed Martin’s manufacturing facility in Waterton, Colorado, but are also going full swing on preparations to launch our first vehicle in December 2018 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket – more on this later. The GPS III satellites provide signals designed to improve the user’s ability to navigate. In addition to the increased power and greater accuracy, GPS III adds a civil new signal, L1C, designed for compatibility with the international Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) community.
 
  GPS IIIF. In September 2018, the Air Force awarded the GPS III Follow-on contract to Lockheed Martin. This $7.2B contract for 22 satellites was the result of a competitive process for a production effort. Based on the GPS III technical baseline, the GPS IIIF family of satellites embraces modernization and capability improvements in multiple areas. First, a Regional Military Protection capability will provide increased anti-jam capabilities. Furthermore, a new Search-and-Rescue (SAR/ GPS) payload will provide improved timeliness of global search-and-rescue operations. Additionally, a Laser Retro- reflector Array (LRA) payload will enable precise ranging measurements and the program will implement a Unified S-Band capability to address consolidation of telemetry, tracking, and commanding frequencies. Finally, the program will host a redesigned Nuclear Detonation ( NUDET) Detection System (NDS) solution that has a lower overall size and weight. We look forward to the continued partnership with Lockheed Martin and will be looking collaboratively at opportunities to add additional capabilities incrementally over the life of the 22 GPS IIIF satellite production line.
 
  OCX, the Next Generation Operational Control Segment. Last year Raytheon delivered the initial system, known as OCX Block 0, to support the launch and on-orbit check-out of the GPS III satellites. This past year, we have actively utilized the system in a variety of exercises, training events, compatibility tests, and launch readiness events. We also completed a comprehensive security review of the system to demonstrate our readiness to start operations. The system is ready to go. We continue to work the development of the OCX Block 1 system and are wrapping up the initial coding of the system early in 2019, leading into our integration and test campaign. The journey over the past few years has been challenging, but we have emerged stronger, armed with better metrics, and a culture of integrated development (often called DevOps) which puts us on a path to success. There will be challenges and risks in the path ahead but rather than mountains to climb, I see these more as standard blocking and tackling of a software intensive program.
 
  Legacy Ground Sustainment. Running in parallel to  these modernization efforts is the all-important work to sustain our existing GPS infrastructure of our current Operational Control System (OCS). These sustainment efforts ensure GPS continues to be the gold standard in positioning, navigation, and timing but also are a crucial “on-ramp” to facilitate a smooth merge onto the modernized GPS capabilities. Since 2014, the GPS program office has incrementally implemented several upgrades that not only maintain our satellite constellation delivery of GPS signal-in-space accuracy of 50 cm, but also significantly increases the cybersecurity posture of the legacy OCS. These upgrades culminated with a deployment of the latest modification in October 2018, which finished a worldwide modernization of our entire control system hardware and software. This latest upgrade, known as Version 7.5, virtualized the network, implemented two-factor authentication, and improved encryption for mission data.
 
  Legacy Ground Improvements. Given the delays in OCX, the Directorate is actively working two major upgrades to OCS to bridge the gap. The first is GPS III Contingency Operations (COps) modification which will allow the 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2SOPS) to command and control the GPS III family of vehicles in a mission state matching today’s legacy signals for all users world-wide. The second modification is M-Code Early Use, which enables 2SOPS to operationalize the Modernized GPS military signals (M-Code) navigation signals for the warfighter.
 
  User Equipment. As I write this article, Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, and Airmen are testing and integrating mature, next-generation GPS receiver cards providing more accurate and reliable position, navigation, and timing (PNT) solutions. In 2019, the first increment of Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) is on track to complete card-level testing to inform Service procurement strategies. This exciting work is the culmination of nearly two decades of modernization efforts throughout the GPS Enterprise. In the near term, we are utilizing M-Code capable lead platforms — USAF B-2 Bomber, USMC Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, USN Arleigh-Burke Class Guided Missile Destroyer, and Army Stryker combat vehicle — to prove out those capabilities. The second increment of MGUE focuses on requirements for precision guided munitions, a joint common modular handheld unit, as well as circuit cards and components for low size, weight and power needs. With MGUE, the DoD and services are poised to have enduring PNT solutions the warfighter can leverage for years to come.
 
  Integration Roadmaps
 
  The delivery of individual programs is the stepping stone in the capability deliveries to the warfighter and our civilian users. However, it is our ability to unite a diverse collection of programs and stakeholders, across the GPS Enterprise, which defines our success as the GPS Green Monsters. We have done this by linking cross-program enterprise teamssothesum of thewhole is greater than its parts.
 
  Enterprise Road to Launch (ERTL). The goal is pulling together a series of firsts (new satellite, new ground system, and new launch provider), which has not been done before in the modern GPS Era, to deliver the spacecraft safely on-orbit and under control. Our journey to this historic launch has taken time and effort, and we are enthusiastically awaiting the final steps. The first GPS III spacecraft is safely at Cape Canaveral and ready to go. The control system has been tested and run through its paces. The integrated launch team has conducted its exercises and reviews. All signs point to launch in December 2018. The launch itself is a significant milestone, and marks a beginning of the orbital phase of GPS III. The Road to Launch team is prepared to execute the launch, the check-out and the day-to-day on-orbit housekeeping until the ground updates are complete to transfer the new GPS III satellite into the active constellation later in 2019.
 
  Enterprise Road to Mission (ERM). The goal is bringing the GPS III satellites into the active constellation providing mission similar to today’s capabilities. A key enabler of the ERM IPT’s success is their development of the first-ever Enterprise “Integration Playbook”, which is the tangible, documented output of a significant dedicated planning effort. The Playbook captures how all the pieces and efforts from each stakeholder community tie together to achieve Operational Acceptance of the first GPS III satellite, the USNDS payload, and the COps modification to OCS. The “Playbook” describes in clear and concise terms how these deliveries integrate across the GPS Enterprise, as well as how tasks and milestones from various stakeholders converge to achieve clear end states.
 
  Enterprise Road to M-Code Mission, or ERM-M-Code. Shifting now to our military users, the purpose of the ERM-M-Code team is to lead the early delivery of a more robust, resilient, jamming/tampering-resistant PNT signal capability to warfighters. The rollout of the operational M-Code capability depends on the success of the M-Code Early Use modification to OCS, installation ofnew M-Code signal monitoring equipment at sites around the globe, modification of mission planning software, Military GPS User Equipment Increment 1 development, service lead platform integration efforts, and operationalization of space receivers. Our ultimate objective is to improve the ability of the Combined Space Operations Center (CSpOC) to respond to urgent PNT needs of the Combatant Commanders, as they engage more sophisticated adversaries. We remain closely aligned with our peers at USSTRATCOM, AFSPC and user communities.
 
  Conclusion
 
  It is an exciting time to be a GPS Green Monster! These roadmaps are by no means easy to create and execute. It is thanks to the remarkable people of your GPS Directorate that these multifaceted challenges are unraveled, aligned, and resolved. The team has worked incredibly hard this past year to position our systems for major, integrated deliveries over the next couple of years.
 
 
  It has been the highlight of my career to serve with these men and women and I can’t wait to see where we — and the GPS Enterprise — go next.
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